In countries such as Russia and China, laws still do not permit community radio licensing Arutunyan, ; Traynor, and in the latter, state practices have criminalized promoting independent, community-owned broadcasting Foxwell-Norton, By contrast, in counties such as Venezuela and Hungary, regulations introduced in the s resulted in new community radio stations going on air; the latter saw more than 70 stations on-air in less than six years Hargitai, Szombathy, and Mayer, An additional factor aiding the rapid growth of community radio during the Resurgence period was the increasing accessibility and affordability of radio production and distribution technology.
Prior to the s, radio stations or producers wanting to share content either required an expensive connection typically via satellite or high-grade phone line or relied on shipping recordings through the mail.
Journal of Media Economics. The information provided pertains to current events, trends, issues, and people. You can find rewarding careers in any area where journalistic and media production skills are needed. This is your opportunity to customize the major to your own strengths and goals. The Summer Fellowship Program, the most notable student out-reach effort of the IRTS Foundation, teaches up-and-coming communicators the realities of the business world through an expense-paid fellowship, which includes practical experience and career-planning advice.
With the spread of the internet, new websites were launched like Radio4all. The same was true for the impact of software innovations for editing digital audio. Prior to the s, audio editing was a slow and laborious task due to the methods required such as a steady hand and razor blade skills to edit analogue tape recordings. With the introduction of digital audio editing programs in the s, some of which, like Cool Edit, offered trial versions for free download, anyone could edit audio on multiple tracks and mix in scripting or music easily Home Recording Forums, Once the audio file was edited, compressed, and saved on the computer, the producer could send the file through a website like Radio4all.
In , Audacity, an open source digital audio editing software, was launched for free download and use Audacity, n. These advances in internet distribution websites and digital audio editing software complemented the increasing affordability of professional portable audio recorders. Indeed, community media and grassroots activism experienced a common renaissance beginning in the s.
It continues through to today due in part to a common struggle against injustice and for the advancement of democratic media and communication technology Milan, Resembling the revolutionary activity of insurgent broadcasters during the Wildfire period, the reclamation of media by activists during the Resurgence period is best represented by the struggle of the Zapatista National Liberation Army against corporate globalization and for self-representation.
For some, the mobilization of multimedia tactics by the Zapatistas in their liberation struggle inspired a new generation of media activism Kidd and Rodriguez, , pp. Community media theorists such as Kidd and Rodriguez observed a shift during this time from the struggle to democratize mass media flows, which took prominence at the NWICO debates in the s, to organizing for democratic media in the s—s Ferron, Also noted by Milan, the development of community radio was aided by this new wave of media activism, in addition to the spread of the internet to households for the first time Milan, , p.
Such technological advances ensured that radio, although an old medium, remained a preferred platform as an accessible communication technology made possible through the increasing simplicity and affordability of the production and broadcast technology Dunbar-Hester, , p. Indeed, in countries such as Australia, community radio stations on the FM dial are competing with commercial and public broadcasters, especially in rural areas Kidd and Rodriguez, , p.
Since the first broadcast of voice over the radio spectrum, radio broadcasting has been transformed by radio enthusiasts and media activists worldwide from a medium for the transportation of mysterious dots and dashes of Morse code to a communication technology that has the potential to empower communities to represent and hear themselves; and in the case of Australia, community broadcasters are increasingly attracting radio audiences who reject commercial and state broadcasters Foxwell-Norton, ; Meadows et al. In summary, the above timeline analyses the history of community broadcasting by organizing the development of community radio practices into four distinct periods.
Analysed above, these four periods trace the development of community radio around the globe with two goals. The first engages the decolonization debate in communication research by internationalizing the history of community radio to acknowledge the different origins of the practice and view the common roots of community radio.
The second goal emphasises the diversity of practices through compiling a multitude of experiments advanced by a complex ecology of actors, policies, and processes that underpin the spread of community radio. Unlike other histories of community media Lewis, ; Milan, ; Rennie, ; Rodriguez, , this timeline features stations, policies and regulations, as well as associational development, starting in the early s with the first attempts to establish radio broadcasting as a means of self-representation and liberation.
The history of community broadcasting compiled here begins in the Experimental period from the s—s to position community radio as one of the original uses of radio broadcast technology Douglas, ; Kidd, This first period saw revolutionaries and social movements working locally to mobilize radio technology as a tool for grassroots political communication. In addition, this phase saw different types of development, including experiments that advanced radio technology, the building of community-accessible radio studios, and the creation of new funding models through listener donations, church or union support.
This foundation was extended during the Wildfire period in which radio broadcasting by non-state, non-corporate, and social movement actors spread across several continents. During this period, radio became a necessary feature of national and regional liberation struggles and independence movements. Thus, radio as a weapon of resistance was a common feature in war zones, and unlicensed stations went on air by the hundreds. These stations supported students and workers, and united other familiar networks like Indigenous and campesino communities.
During the next period, community radio stations organized into networks, shared resources, and created advocacy bodies for the first time, making the ss the Solidarity period. In these two decades, community radio was supported by new funding initiatives and legislation. An additional outcome of the Solidarity era was the internationalization of community media activism at the NWICO gatherings that enshrined communication as a human right and promoted the value of participatory media.
These gains met new challenges during the Resurgence period that began in the s when neoliberal development agendas prioritised commercial media and the privatisation of communication infrastructure over the development of community radio. Despite this pushback, community media continued to spread at a fast pace to many countries for the first time.
When countries such as South Africa and Hungary opened up community radio licensing, nearly community broadcasters went on air in just a few years. While the Resurgence period saw the increased accessibility of radio production and distribution technology due to developments in digital editing software and internet audio sharing portals, community radio stations still faced challenges due to local media regulations. After a global survey of community broadcasters conducted in , AMARC concluded that the continuing lack of supportive legislation was the most significant impediment to increasing the civic impact of community radio AMARC, , p.
In the face of these challenges, community radio advocacy increased during the Resurgence period, in part due to the mutual renaissance experienced by community radio and grassroots activism around the start of the twenty-first century. The story of community broadcasting compiled here and the current Resurgence reveal that the development of community radio as an institution has roots in the global South and among non-state, non-corporate and social movement actors everywhere who took to the FM dial to break through sound barriers created by capitalism and the State.
Such an effort can also reveal where community radio is under threat today, especially for those community broadcasters who face jail time, violence, and even death. History of Struggle Audio Recording. The recording was produced by Elizabeth Delaquess. Ala-Fossi, M. Future of Community Radio in the Digital Era. Paper at the Nordic Community Radio Conference. AMARC Community radio social impact assessment — removing barriers, increasing effectiveness.
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