Kants Critique of pure reason: A critical exposition

Kant’s Views on Space and Time
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Schultz's Exposition Erlauterungen is supplemented by appendices including translations of Schultz's review of Kant's Inaugural Dissertation, three early reviews of the Critique including the Gottingen Review and Christian Garve's review , and the complete correspondence between Kant and Schultz. Morrison also provides an introduction discussing the historical background to Schultz's Exposition, and a bibliography of Schultz's works.

Includes bibliographical references and index. View online Borrow Buy Freely available Show 0 more links Set up My libraries How do I set up "My libraries"? Australian National University Library. Open to the public. La Trobe University Library. Borchardt Library, Melbourne Bundoora Campus. Murdoch University Library. None of your libraries hold this item. Found at these bookshops Searching - please wait We were unable to find this edition in any bookshop we are able to search.

These online bookshops told us they have this item:. Tags What are tags? Add a tag. Conscious evidently of its insufficiency, Kant has tried to improve it by the alteration of one passage see Preface, p. But he forgot to cancel at the same time in the Second Edition the numerous passages which are in contradiction with the new note, and in agreement with what he had cancelled.

This applies particularly to the whole of the sixth section of the Antinomy of Pure Reason, and to all those passages which I pointed out with some amazement in my critique which was written before I knew the First Edition and its later fate , because in them he contradicts himself. That it was fear which drove the old man to disfigure his Critique of rational psychology is shown also by this, that his attacks on the sacred doctrines of the old dogmatism are far weaker, far more timid and superficial, than in the First Edition, and that, for the sake of peace, he mixed them up at once with anticipations which are out of place, nay, Edition: current; Page: [ lxix ] cannot as yet be understood, of the immortality of the soul, grounded on practical reason and represented as one of its postulates.

By thus timidly yielding he has in reality retracted, with regard to the principal problem of all philosophy, viz. This he did in his sixty-fourth year with a carelessness which is peculiar to old age quite as much as timidity, and he thus surrendered his system, not however openly, but escaping from it through a back-door, evidently ashamed himself of what he was doing. By this process the Critique of Pure Reason has, in its Second Edition, become a self-contradictory, crippled, and corrupt book, and is no longer genuine.

For who can understand what contradicts itself? That the unity of thought which pervades the First Edition is broken now and then in the Second Edition, no attentive reader can fail to see.

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That Kant shows rather too much anxiety to prove the harmlessness of his Critique, is equally true, and it would have been better if, while refuting what he calls Empirical Idealism, he had declared more strongly his unchanged adherence to the principles of Transcendental Edition: current; Page: [ lxx ] Idealism. If ever man lived the life of a true philosopher, making the smallest possible concessions to the inevitable vanities of the world, valuing even the shadowy hope of posthumous fame 2 at no more than its proper worth, but fully enjoying the true enjoyments of this life, an unswerving devotion to truth, a consciousness of righteousness, and a sense of perfect independence, that man was Kant.

If it is true that on some points which may seem more important to others than they seemed to himself, he changed his mind, or, as we should now say, if there was a later development in his philosophical views, this would seem to me to impose on every student the duty, which I have tried to fulfil as a translator also, viz. The additions of the Second Edition will be found on pp. Kant received no proof-sheets, and he examined the first thirty clean sheets, which were in his hands when he wrote the preface, so carelessly that he could detect in them only one essential misprint.

We hardly know whether these minor alterations came from Kant himself, for he is said to have remained firmly attached to the old system of orthography; 1 and it seems quite certain that he himself paid no further attention to the later editions, published during his lifetime, the Third Edition in , the Fourth in , the Fifth in No one seems to have thought of attributing it to Kant himself, who at that time of life was quite incapable of such work.


In order for humans to behave properly, they can suppose that the soul is an imperishable substance, it is indestructibly simple, it stays the same forever, and it is separate from the decaying material world. Many were then still drawn to more or less positivist… More. Kant therefore attempts to extract from each of the logical forms of judgement a concept which relates to intuition. I now find some misprints, though they do not spoil the sense, except on p. Guyer, Cambridge, Motion presupposes the perception of something moving.

Professor B. Erdmann supposed it might be the work of Rink, or some other amanuensis of Kant. Vaihinger has shown that it is the work of a Professor Grillo, who, in the Philosophische Anzeiger, a Supplement to L. It is this list of Professor Grillo which, with certain deductions, has been added to the Fifth Edition of the Critique. The more important are: —. Leclair, A. Paulsen, Versuch einer Entwickelungsgeschichte der Kantischen Erkenntnisslehre, Erdmann, B.

It often happens, however, that the construction of a whole sentence depends on a very slight alteration of the text. But Kant uses several nouns in a gender which has become obsolete. The same applies to several prepositions which Kant construes with different cases from what would be sanctioned by modern German grammar.

Much has been achieved in this line, and conjectural alterations have been made by recent editors of Kant of which a Bentley or a Lachmann need not be ashamed.

Introduction to Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (Part 2 of 4)

In cases where these emendations affected the meaning, and when the reasons why my translation deviated so much from the textus receptus might not be easily perceived, I have added the emendations adopted by me, in a note. Those who wish for fuller information on these points, will have to consult Dr.

How important some of the emendations are which have to be taken into account before an intelligible translation is possible, may be seen from a few specimens. Page , we must read keine, instead of eine Wahrnehmung. Page , we must keep the reading of the First Edition transcendentalen, instead of transcendenten, as printed in the Second; while on p.

Hartenstein rightly corrects this into reine Privatmeinungen, i. Page , instead of ein jeder Theil, it is proposed to read kein Theil. This would be necessary if we took vermisst werden kann, in the sense of can be spared, while if we take it in the sense of can be missed, i. See the Preface to the First Edition, p. This gives no sense, because Kant never speaks of a reinen Gegenstand.

In the list of Corrigenda at the end of the Fifth Edition, reinen is changed into keinen, which Hartenstein has rightly adopted, while Rosenkranz retains reinen. On pp. It probably was a marginal note, made by Kant himself, but inserted in the wrong place. It would do very well as a note to the sentence: Eben so wenig ist irgend ein Grundsatz der reinen Geometrie analytisch. With these prefatory remarks I leave my translation in the hands of English readers.

It contains the result of hard work and hard thought, and I trust it will do some good. But that Lingua Franca, though it may contain many familiar words from all languages of the world, has yet, like every other language, to be learnt.

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A book which Schiller and Schopenhauer had to read again and again before they could master it, will not yield its secrets at the first time of asking. An Indian proverb says that it is not always the fault of the post, if a blind man cannot see it, nor is it always the fault of the profound thinker, if his language is unintelligible to the busy crowd. I am no defender of dark sayings, and I still hold to an opinion for which I have often been blamed, that there is nothing in any science that cannot be stated clearly, if only we know it clearly.

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Still there are limits. No man has a right to complain that he cannot understand Edition: current; Page: [ lxxvi ] higher mathematics, if he declines to advance step by step from the lowest to the highest stage of that science. It is the same in philosophy. Philosophy represents a long toil in thought and word, and it is but natural that those who have toiled long in inward thought should use certain concepts, and bundles of concepts, with their algebraic exponents, in a way entirely bewildering to the outer world.

He does not wish to persuade, he tries to convince. Kant would not have been the really great man he was, if he had escaped the merciless criticism of his smaller contemporaries. But herein too we perceive the greatness of Kant, that those hostile criticisms, even where they are well founded, touch only on less essential points, and leave the solidity of the whole structure of his philosophy unimpaired. But with every year, and with every new perusal, some of these mists and clouds will vanish, and the central truth will be seen rising before our eyes with constantly increasing warmth and splendour, like a cloudless sun in an Eastern sky.

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And now, while I am looking at the last lines that I have written, it may be the last lines that I shall ever write on Kant, the same feeling comes over me which I expressed in the Preface to the last volume of my edition of the Rig-Veda and its ancient Commentary. I feel as if Edition: current; Page: [ lxxvii ] an old friend, with whom I have had many communings during the sunny and during the dark days of life, was taken from me, and I should hear his voice no more.

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In the Veda we watch the first unfolding of the human mind as we can watch it nowhere else. Life seems simple, natural, childlike, full of hopes, undisturbed as yet by many doubts or fears.


What is beneath, and above, and beyond this life is dimly perceived, and expressed in a thousand words and ways, all mere stammerings, all aiming to express what cannot be expressed, yet all full of a belief in the real presence of the Divine in Nature, of the Infinite in the Finite. Here is the childhood of our race unfolded before our eyes, at least so much of it as we shall ever know on Aryan ground, — and there are lessons to be read in those hymns, aye, in every word that is used by those ancient poets, which will occupy and delight generations to come.

It has passed through many phases, and every one of them had its purpose, and has left its mark. It is no longer dogmatical, it is no longer sceptical, least of all is it positive. It knows what the Edition: current; Page: [ lxxviii ] old idols of its childhood and its youth too were made of. It does not break them, it only tries to understand them, but it places above them the Ideals of Reason — no longer tangible — not even within reach of the understanding — yet real, if anything can be called real, — bright and heavenly stars to guide us even in the darkest night.

In the Veda we see how the Divine appears in the fire, and in the earthquake, and in the great and strong wind which rends the mountain.

Everything in Nature is or is not, is necessary or contingent, true or false. But there is no room in Nature for the Ought, as little as there is in Logic, Mathematics, or Geometry. Let that suffice, and let future generations learn all the lessons contained in that simple word, I ought, as interpreted by Kant.

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I feel I have done but little for my two friends, far less than they have done for me. I myself have learnt from the Veda all that I cared to learn, but the right and full interpretation of all that the poets of the Vedic hymns have said or have meant to say, must be left to the future. What I could do in this short life of ours was to rescue from oblivion the most ancient heirloom of the Aryan family, to establish its text on a sound basis, and to render accessible its venerable Commentary, which, so long as Vedic studies last, may be criticised, but can never be ignored.


I do not venture to give the right and full explanation of all that Kant has said or has meant to say. I myself have learnt from him all that I cared to learn, and I now give Edition: current; Page: [ lxxix ] to the world the text of his principal work, critically restored, and so translated that the translation itself may serve as an explanation, and in some places even as a commentary of the original.

Here we find, for instance, such mistakes as:. More perplexing even than these gross mistakes are smaller inaccuracies, such as ihr instead of sie, sie instead of ihn, den instead of dem, noch instead of nach, which frequently form very serious impediments in the right construction of a sentence. Though it has been left out in this second edition, I hope it may soon be republished as an independent work. It is therefore our first instruction, and in its progress so rich in new lessons that the chain of all future generations will never be in want of new information that may be gathered on that field.