Molecular Targets of CNS Tumors

Molecular Diagnostics and Pathology of Major Brain Tumors
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Further studies considering different ethnic groups with large samples are required to confirm this finding. Related: Polymorphisms.

go site The association of 6 variants of 8q24 and the risk of glioma: A meta-analysis. Medicine Baltimore. With the advances in sequencing technologies and genome-wide association studies GWAS , several inherited variants that increase glioma risk have been identified. Ten studies including cases and 17, controls were collected to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the associations between 6 variants in 8q24 and glioma risk.

Further studies are needed to explore the role of the 8q24 variants involved in the etiology of glioma. Related: Chromosome 8. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. BMC Neurol. We aim to investigate associations between CIC gene mutation status, MR characteristics and clinical features. Related: CIC. DNA Cell Biol.

Molecular Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment of CNS Tumors | Frontiers Research Topic

This study was aimed to identify hub genes associated with the development of glioblastoma GBM by conducting a bioinformatic analysis. After the differentially expressed genes DEGs were identified, the functional enrichment analysis of DEGs was conducted. Subsequently, the protein-protein interaction PPI network, molecular complex detection clusters, and transcriptional factor TF -miRNA-target regulatory network were constructed, respectively.

Furthermore, the survival analysis of prognostic outcomes and genes was analyzed. A total of DEGs, including upregulated and downregulated genes, were identified between GBM and normal samples. The PPI network comprised a set of pairs involving nodes, and. Glioblastoma GBM is the most prevalent and malignant primary brain tumor. Online prediction algorithm Targetscan was used to predict the target genes of miRp.

The dual luciferase reporter gene assay was performed to confirm whether nuclear factor of activated T cells c2 NFATc2 was a direct biological target of miRp. We found that miRp expression was significantly decreased in both GBM tissues and cultured cell lines. Overexpression of miRp by transfection with miRp mimic suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of GBM cells.

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Gynecol Oncol. Charts and medical records were retrospectively reviewed for clinical characteristics and germline BRCA mutation status.

Molecular Targets of CNS Tumors

Appropriate statistics were used. Clinical characteristics were similar between groups. HR was adjusted for presence of systemic disease at time of BM diagnosis. Subsequently, this interaction leads to the global reduction level of H3K27me3. The labeling index of Ki was 1.

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Study Details In the trial, patients with disease Brain metastases have traditionally been treated with surgery or radiation therapy. Radiation therapy. Learn more about coping with the fear of recurrence. Subgrouping MBs by immunohistochemical stains.

Further studies are necessary to understand the mechanism involved. Nat Commun. Association of ApoE haplotype with clinical evidence of pituitary adenoma. Int J Mol Sci. Glioblastoma GBM is one of the most aggressive cancers, with median survival of less than 2 years. Despite of considerable advance in molecular classification of GBMs, no improvements in therapy have been described. The scenario is further complicated by tumor heterogeneity and the relationship among genetic, transcriptional and functional findings.

Classically, gene expression has been evaluated by steady-state mRNA, however, this does not take translational control into consideration, which contributes considerably to the composition of the proteome. In this study, we evaluated the transcriptomic and translatomic signature of a GBM obtained from a single patient focusing in tumor heterogeneity. An increased translation rate was observed in fragments with high-grade histological features. High-grade histology was also associated with the expression of genes related to extracellular matrix ECM and angiogenesis, in both transcriptomes and translatomes.

However, genes associated with epithelial to mesenchymal transition and stress response, were observed only in translatomes from high-grade fragments. Overall, our results demonstrate that isolation of translated mRNA can be used to identify biomarkers and reveal previously unrecognized determinants of heterogeneity in GBMs. BMC Cancer. Despite the use of this cell line as an in vitro model for functional and therapeutic studies of malignant primitive neuroectodermal tumor PNET , there is a lack of complete information about the genetic alterations that are present at the cytogenetic level.

1. Introduction

Molecular Targets of CNS Tumors is a selected review of Central Nervous System (CNS) tumors with particular emphasis on signaling pathway. Tumors of central nervous system (CNS) account for a small portion of As a matter of fact, those target treatments have already archived.

Thus, the current study aimed to characterize the cytogenetic profile of this cell line. METHODS: Routine G-banded chromosome analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization assays were performed to characterize the chromosomal changes in this cell line. Importantly, all cells displayed a loss of chromosomes Y, 11, 13, and However, some cells showed an additional loss of chromosome Additionally, the observed structural changes indicated: a unbalanced translocation between chromosomes 1 and 7; b translocation between chromosomes 11 and 22 at breakpoints 11q24 and 22q12, which is a classical translocation that is associated with Ewing sarcoma; c a derivative chromosome due to a whole arm translocation between chromosomes 16 and 17 at likely breakpoints 16p10 and 17q10; and d possible rearrangement in the short arm of chromosome Moreover, a variable number of double minutes were also observed in each metaphase cell.

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Furthermore, the microarray assay results not only demonstrated genomic-wide chromosomal imbalance in this cell line and precisely placed chromosomal breakpoints on unbalanced, rearranged chromosomes, but also revealed information about subtle chromosomal changes and the chromosomal origin of double minutes. Finally, the fluorescence in situ hybridization assay confirmed the findings of the routine cytogenetic analysis and microarrays. Adv Clin Exp Med. Meningioma tumors are commonly benign but may demonstrate an invasive pattern with frequent recurrences. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase hTERT is an unfavorable prognostic factor for several types of cancers, and there are controversies about its role.

Cedars-Sinai investigators have identified a stem cell—regulating gene that affects tumor growth in patients with brain cancer and can strongly influence survival rates of patients.

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The findings, published by Edwards et al in Nature Scientific Reports, could move physicians closer to their In a rigorous study of tumor tissue collected from patients with aggressive brain cancers, researchers at Johns Hopkins said they have found no evidence of cytomegalovirus CMV infection and concluded that a link between the two diseases, as claimed by earlier reports, likely does not exist. Holger N. Lode, MD, of the University of Greifswald, discusses in German the survival of neuroblastoma patients treated with long-term infusion of the anti-GD2 antibody ch Lode, MD, of the University of Greifswald, discusses the survival of neuroblastoma patients treated with long-term infusion of the anti-GD2 antibody ch In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Bell et al derived a molecular-based recursive partitioning analysis model for overall survival in glioblastoma multiforme in the temozolomide era with the aim of refining existing clinically based models.

Study Details The study involved analysis of In the largest clinical study to date of genetic abnormalities in A year-old patient with recurrent multifocal glioblastoma after tumor resection, radiation therapy, and temozolomide was treated with As reported by Erik P. The endorsement was based on review of These genes provide instructions for making proteins that are part of a family of proteins called receptor Glioblastoma multiforme remains the most common and highly lethal brain cancer, known for its tendency to recur.

Researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have identified a pathway by which cancer cells aggressively spread and grow in the brain, opening up new possibilities In the phase III EORTC European Organisation for Research and Treatment intergroup trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Baumert et al found no progression-free survival difference between temozolomide chemotherapy and radiotherapy alone in patients with high-risk low-grade glioma Stereotactic radiosurgery SRS for cancer patients who receive the treatment for brain metastases decreases the likelihood of local recurrence, but shows no positive difference in terms of overall survival or distant brain metastases rates when compared to observation alone following surgical In the largest trial conducted for average-risk medulloblastoma, survival rates following reduced radiation therapy boost volumes were comparable to standard treatment volumes for the primary tumor site, but lower doses of craniospinal axis irradiation were associated with higher event rates and For patients who have cancer that has metastasized to the brain, stereotactic radiosurgery SRS results in statistically comparable survival rates, reduced cognitive decline, and better quality of life, compared to whole-brain radiotherapy WBRT , according to research presented at the 58th Annual This scheme is currently the most widely utilized by neuropathologists worldwide for typing and grading the CNS tumors [ 1 ].

Neoplasms, especially those malignant ones, are biologically characterized by noncontrolled tumor cell proliferation; this uncontrolled growth is best explained by recently discovered EGFR epidermal growth factor receptor mutations, which mutations result in uncontrolled signal transduction downward to nuclei without ligand binding to the receptor and led to unlimited cell proliferation.

Imaging of Brain Tumors

During the last two decades, a lot of gene mutations are identified, especially in the oncology field, which has been helpful for the development of new generation of antitumor medication focusing on the mutated gene products. As a matter of fact, those target treatments have already archived tremendous successes in the oncology field. For example, gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib are the current targeted medications against EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancers, which already show great clinical success.

The following chapter is going to review some development in brain tumors, especially the recent understanding of adult gliomas and pediatric medulloblastomas, as well as some other uncommon tumors for their molecular diagnosis and genetic subgrouping. They are broadly classified by glial cell type of origin and determined by histology with or without the use of immunohistochemistry IHC , which is then used to provide a WHO grade see Table 1 [ 1 ]; however, histology has not been able to accurately predict response to treatment or clinical outcomes, and it is not uncommon for many of these tumors with nearly identical histologic features to have very different outcomes.

As a result of these observations, and like many malignancies lung and colorectal carcinoma for example , there has been increasing interest in attempting to further classify these tumors based on their molecular expression. With that interest there is an increase in available published data regarding these molecular alterations and a subsequent increase in the availability of myriad testing modalities; some of which are now considered well established, while others are not.

In an era of test utilization awareness and rising healthcare costs, this phenomenon frequently leads to confusion regarding which tests should be utilized, how those tests should be interpreted, and how they should be reported, in order to best guide treatment and predict outcomes in this patient population [ 2 ]. We will discuss here the well-established molecular concepts, touch briefly on the evolving molecular discoveries, and provide a testing algorithm see Table 1.