The Iranian Revolution (Pivotal Moments in History)

Iranian Revolution
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More than any other event, Americans of all generations, races, genders, and political affiliations agreed that the terror attacks on Sept. More than three-quarters of the respondents included the attacks on their lists of historically significant events, and only black respondents ranked any other event as highly Obama's presidency, in their case.

The attacks and the country's subsequent response also received the highest ranking when respondents were asked to name the events that made them most proud of their country. World globe An icon of the world globe, indicating different international options. Search icon A magnifying glass. It indicates, "Click to perform a search".

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Email icon An envelope. It indicates the ability to send an email. Link icon An image of a chain link. It symobilizes a website link url. Twitter icon A stylized bird with an open mouth, tweeting. LinkedIn icon The word "in". Fliboard icon A stylized letter F. Secretary of State Cyrus Vance rejected a military crackdown; [] he and his supporters believed in the "moderate and progressive" intentions of Khomeini and his circle. Increasing contact was established with the pro-Khomeini camp.

Based on the revolutionaries responses, some American officials especially Ambassador Sullivan felt that Khomeini was genuinely intent on creating a democracy.

The Shah began to search for a new prime minister, one who was a civilian and a member of the opposition. Bakhtiar would be appointed prime minister a return to civilian rule , while the Shah and his family would leave the country for a "vacation". His royal duties would be carried out by a Regency Council, and three months after his departure a referendum would be submitted to the people deciding on whether Iran would remain a monarchy or become a republic.

The Iranian Revolution—A timeline of events

The Reformation The Reformation was one of the greatest events in European history. But the coup was clearly a setback for Iran's political development. Tap here to turn on desktop notifications to get the news sent straight to you. Islam teach how to respect and love people it teachs how even to care for animals and environment. The Reformation was one of the greatest events in European history. The ambassador further wrote that revolutionary literature was being shipped from Tabriz by Russian revolutionaries. Would it have gone to war against Iraq?

A former opponent of the Shah, Bakhtiar became motivated to join the government because he was increasingly aware of Khomeini's intentions to implement hard-line religious rule rather than a democracy. The Shah, hoping to see Bakhtiar established, kept delaying his departure. Consequently, to the Iranian public, Bakhtiar was seen as the Shah's last prime minister, undermining his support. He left Iran on 3 February.

Timeline: Iran’s Islamic Revolution and the 40 years that followed

On the morning of 16 January , Bakhtiar was officially appointed prime minister. The same day, a tearful Shah and his family left Iran for exile in Egypt , never to return. When news of the Shah's departure was announced, there were spontaneous scenes of joy throughout the country. Millions poured onto the streets, and virtually every remaining sign of the monarchy was torn down by the crowds.

He ordered the army to allow mass demonstrations, promised free elections and invited the revolutionaries into a government of "national unity". Bakhtiar invited Khomeini back to Iran, with the intention of creating a Vatican -like state in the holy city of Qom , declaring that "We will soon have the honor of welcoming home the Ayatollah Khomeini".

Khomeini was now not only the undisputed leader of the revolution, [] [] he had become what some called a "semi-divine" figure, greeted as he descended from his airplane with cries of 'Khomeini, O Imam, we salute you, peace be upon you. On the day of his arrival Khomeini made clear his rejection of Bakhtiar's government in a speech promising, "I shall kick their teeth in. I appoint the government, I appoint the government in support of this nation". The nation must obey him. This is not an ordinary government. It is a government based on the sharia. Opposing this government means opposing the sharia of Islam Revolt against God's government is a revolt against God.

Revolt against God is blasphemy. Angered, Bakhtiar made a speech of his own. Reaffirming himself as the legitimate leader, he declared that:. Iran has one government. More than this is intolerable, either for me or for you or for any other Iranian. As a Muslim, I had not heard that jihad refers to one Muslim against other Muslims I will not give permission to Ayatollah Khomeini to form an interim government. In life there comes a time when one must stand firm and say no I have never seen a book about an Islamic republic; neither has anyone else for that matter Some of the people surrounding the Ayatollah are like violent vultures The clergy should go to Qom and build a wall around themselves and create their own Vatican.

Tensions between the two rival governments increased rapidly. To demonstrate his support, Khomeini called for demonstrators to occupy the streets throughout the country. He also sent a letter to American officials warning them to withdraw support for Bakhtiar. The military was crumbling, with its leadership completely paralyzed, unsure of whether to support Bakhtiar or act on their own, and rank-and-file soldiers either demoralized or deserting.

A unit of the pro-Shah Immortal Guards attempted to apprehend the rebels, and an armed battle broke out. Soon large crowds took to the streets, building barricades and supporting the rebels, while Islamic-Marxist guerillas with their weapons joined in support.

The armed rebels attacked a weapons factory, capturing nearly 50, machine guns and distributing them to civilians who joined in the fighting. The rebels began storming police stations and military bases throughout Tehran. The city's martial law commander General Mehdi Rahimi decided not to use his 30, loyal Immortal Guards to crush the rebellion for fear of producing civilian casualties. Bakhtiar escaped the palace under a hail of bullets, fleeing Iran in disguise.

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He was later assassinated by an agent of the Islamic Republic in in Paris. This period, from 1 to 11 February, is celebrated every year in Iran as the " Decade of Fajr. The Iranian Revolution was a gendered revolution; much of the new regime's rhetoric was centered on the position of women in Iranian society.

Chapter Three - The Communist Party of Iran

For example, women were involved in caring for the wounded, female doctors responding to calls for help and opening their homes for those who needed assistance. While women themselves were often killed, tortured, arrested or injured and some were involved in guerilla activities, most contributed in non-violent ways.

Many women protested while carrying children and their presence was one of the main reasons for disarming soldiers who were there on behalf of the regime who were ordered to shoot if necessary. Ayatollah Khomeini asserted that "You ladies here have proved that you are at the forefront of this movement. You have a great share in our Islamic movement. The future of our country depends on your support.

Furthermore, women later responded to Khomeini's urge to vote in favor of the Islamic Republic and new constitution cities. After the revolution, Khomeini credited the much of the success of the movement to women, even commending the women for mobilizing men, "you ladies have proved that you are in the vanguard of the movement, you have proved that you lead the men, men get their inspiration from you, the men of Iran have learnt lessons from the honourable ladies of Iran You are in the vanguard of the movement.

It has been argued that Khomeini and his fellow leaders danced around the issue of women's rights and rather focused their rhetoric on mobilizing women through encouraging them to participate in protests and fueling their anti-shah sentiments. The contributions of women to the revolutions and the intentions behind these contributions are complex and layered. The motivations of women for being part of the revolutions were complex and varied among a plethora of religious, political and economic reasons [] and women participating were from various classes and backgrounds.

For example, organized feminism which was around since the Pahlavi dynasty, joined the revolutionary movement after the Shah dropped the cabinet position on Women's Affairs to appease the Islamists. Some argue that this politicization and mobilization of women made it difficult for the new regime to push them out of the public and political spheres. The revolution resulted in an unprecedented opening for Iranian women into politics mostly through demonstrations and voting , [] and some authors argue that this had a lasting impact on Iranian women's political participation and role in the public sphere.

Other than the politicization of women, there were particular circumstances during the revolution which pushed women into being involved with politics. For example, "the combination of martial law with its curfew hours and the closing down of shops and workplaces, together with the cold of the fall and winter months resulted in the centers of political discussion often being within the home. These personal accounts were valuable in a time where the official coverage of news was not trusted by many people.

Women who were activists, religious women and women dissatisfied with the regime were able to unite under the anti-Shah umbrella. However it's important to note that "women were not united in their opinions of the revolution and its outcome as much as they were not united in their reasons for joining the revolution". While there has been some academic literature exploring individual narratives of women on the revolution, [] most of the academic work produced focuses on the effect of the revolution on women rather than the role of Iranian women during the revolution.

Scholar Guity Nashat highlights this neglected aspect of the revolution, "Although women's participation in the events leading to the February 11 revolution was instrumental in its success, most studies have not addressed the reasons for their involvement or their contribution. She further explains that the cultural, ideological, social and material factors shaping the social life and class differences in the period just prior to the revolution need to be studied in order to understand how the Iranian women's social consciousness developed and how it led them to take part in public protests.

Brooks argues that women were left to express their concerns through the protest rather than in the Majlis. Thus, this created a "dangerous bargaining position for activist women" since rather than arguing and their position through intellect they were only able to "argue by numbers in the streets and be repelled by force". There are some contesting understandings in academic literature regarding the reasons behind the mobilization of women. While some argue that the micro level actions of women can be understood through religious and political ideologies, others argue that it is in fact the effect of manipulations of information, symbols and context which should be studied.

Some sources such as Emadeddin Baghi , a researcher at the Martyrs Foundation claim 2, protesters and revolutionaries were killed in —79 during the Revolution. Iranian revolutionary songs are epic ballads that composed during the Islamic Revolution in Iran in support of the revolution and opposition the Pahlavi dynasty. Many of the songs on the anniversary of the revolution were broadcast by Iranian state television. In schools, these songs were sung as part of the celebrations Fajr decades by students. From early to either or Iran was in a "revolutionary crisis mode".

Yet, by Khomeini and his supporters had crushed the rival factions, defeated local rebellions and consolidated power. Events that made up both the crisis and its resolution were the Iran hostage crisis , the invasion of Iran by Saddam Hussein 's Iraq, and the presidency of Abolhassan Banisadr.

Introduction

Some observers believe "what began as an authentic and anti-dictatorial popular revolution based on a broad coalition of all anti-Shah forces was soon transformed into an Islamic fundamentalist power-grab," [] that except for his core supporters, the members of the coalition thought Khomeini intended to be more a spiritual guide than a ruler.

Another view is Khomeini had "overwhelming ideological, political and organizational hegemony," [] and non-theocratic groups never seriously challenged Khomeini's movement in popular support.